Monday, November 24, 2014

Natural Orchid Hosts (Phorophytes)

Every once in a while I'll run across a reference to an orchid species growing on a certain species of tree or shrub in nature.  I've recently started to enter these associations into a database.  Wish I had started earlier but...better late than never!

I figured that I might as well share this list on my blog.   It's a little rough around the edges and it's probably always going to be a work in progress.  But I'm hoping that sharing it publicly will help generate interest and help facilitate contributions.   If you happen to run across a natural association that isn't listed here...please share it in a comment.  Given enough eyeballs all associations can be found.

There are three types of natural associations that I'm especially interested in...
  1. Associations of the most commonly grown orchid species...such as Dendrobium nobile, Laelia anceps, Vanda coerulea, etc. 
  2. Associations of the most commonly grown trees here in Southern California...Jacaranda, Camphor, Floss silk, etc.
  3. Associations that occur in drier habitats

Ideally, this list will help people decide which trees to plant.  Whether or not a tree is a good orchid host should be the number one consideration.  Then again, I might be a little biased.

To be clear, this list is exclusively for natural associations.  In cultivation, orchids can be attached to and will grow on a wide range of hosts that they wouldn't necessarily choose in nature.  For example, here's a photo of a Cattleya orchid that's been growing on a tire for several years...


Cattleya Orchid Mounted On Tire


I'm pretty sure that this Cattleya would prefer to grow on some of the phorophytes listed here.

Documenting natural associations is important because it indicates which hosts orchid seeds were able to germinate on.  So not only are these hosts suitable for orchids...they are also suitable for the fungi that the orchid seeds need to germinate.

If we plant plenty of preferred phorophytes, then we can help ensure an abundance of orchids and their fungal partners.  Kinda like selecting plants in order to attract bees, butterflies and hummingbirds.  You would just plant the phorophyte and swoosh...orchids would quickly swarm it like brilliant butterflies.   Are there any phorophytes that will attract both orchids and butterflies?    Are there any orchids that attract butterflies?

As many of us know all too well...there's a wide range of animals that love to eat orchids.  So planting the best phorophytes won't only lead to an abundance of orchids...it will also lead to an abundance of animals that eat the orchids.  Not to mention the animals that pollinate the orchids or use them for shelter.  This in turn will lead to an abundance of the animals that eat the animals that associate with the orchids that grow on the phorophytes that you planted.  Basically, the best phorophytes will have a large multiplier effect on biodiversity.  The most relevant technical term is "facilitation cascade".  My term for this is "linger longer".  Visitors to your garden will have more subjects to photograph.

Another relevant technical term that I also recently learned from the New Zealand Epiphyte Network blog is "synanthrophic" (or... "synanthropic"?).  It refers to plants and animals that benefit from human environments.  Kirby's blog entry highlighted a study that found that mistletoes in Poland preferred growing on non-native city trees.  While googling around for "syanthropic" I found this entry... Synanthropic Habitats.  According to the Expanded Environment's website... it's a non-profit organization...
...devoted to demonstrating alternate ways of responsibly and synthetically integrating biological and ecological agents into the built world. Its goal is to assist governments, municipalities, provinces, organizations, businesses, and individuals to understand, appreciate and envision a more productive relationship between architectural and biological systems for a better and more sustainable world.
What an awesome mission!  Promoting the proliferation of preferred phorophytes should be right up their alley.

Unfortunately, many of these phorophytes aren't readily available in cultivation.  Hopefully we can work together to try and help remedy this problem.  If you grow any of these phorophytes then please share cuttings and/or seeds with others.


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Abies spectabilis - Images / Web - Pleione hookeriana

Acacia ataxacantha - Images / Web - Mystacidium capense, Polystachya mauritiana

Acacia sieberiana - Images / Web - Aerangis verdickii, Ansellia africana

Acer rubrum (red maple) - Images / Web - Encyclia pygmaea, Epidendrum acunae, Epidendrum anceps, Epidendrum nocturnum

Acnistus arborescens (guititi) - Images / Web - "justly famous as an orchid tree", "especially favorable for orchids"

Acrocomia aculeata - Images / Web - Clowesia dodsoniana, Catasetum pendulum

Adansonia digitata (baobab) - Images / Web - Ansellia africana

Adenogyne discolor - Images / Web - 20 orchid species

Afrotrilepis pilosa - Images / Web - Angraecum distichum, Bulbophyllum lupulinum, Calyptrochilum christyanum, Diaphananthe bidens, Polystachya microbambusa, Liparis nervosa, Polystachya odorata var. trilepidis, Tridactyle tridactylites

Albizia saman - Images / Web - Laelia rubescens

Allophylus racemosus - Images / Web - Tolumnia variegata

Alnus nepalensis - Images / Web - Dendrobium aphyllum, Dendrobium eriiflorum, Oberonia falconeri, Oberonia pachyrachis, Pleione hookeriana, Rhynchostylis retusa

Aloe arborescens - Images / Web - Angraecum chamaeanthus, Mystacidium capense

Amaioua guianensis - Images / Web - numerous species

Androstachys johnsonii - Images / Web - Aerangis mystacidii

Annona glabra (pond-apple) - Images / Web - Bulbophyllum pachyrachis, Dendrophylax lindenii, Encyclia pygmaea, Epidendrum rigidum, Epidendrum strobiliferum, Lepanthopsis melanantha, Maxillaria crassifolia, Polystachya flavescens

Antirhea acutata - Images / Web - Psychilis monensis

Araucaria cunninghamii (hoop pine) - Images / Web - Dendrobium schneiderae, Dockrillia wassellii

Ardisia obovata (Guadeloupe Marlberry) - Images / Web - Tolumnia variegata

Artocarpus heterophyllus - Images / Web - Acampe praemosa, Bulbophyllum neilgherrence, Cleisostoma tenuifolium, Dendrobium ovatum, Rhynchostylis retusa, Vanda testacea.

Artocarpus hirsutus - Images / Web - Acampe praemosa, Bulbophyllum neilgherrence, Cleisostoma tenuifolium, Dendrobium ovatum, Rhynchostylis retusa, Vanda testacea.

Backhousia myrtifolia (scrub myrtle) - Images / Web - Dendrobium tetragonum, Plectorrhiza tridentata, Sarcochilus hillii, Sarcochilus parviflorus

Backhousia sciadophora (Shatterwood, Ironwood,) - Images / Web - Sarcochilus falcatus, Sarcochilus hillii

Bischofia javanica - Images / Web - Dendrobium aphyllum

Bourreria domingensis - Images / Web - Tolumnia variegata

Brachychiton populneus (Kurrajong) - Images / Web - Dendrobium speciosum

Brahea dulcis - Images / Web - Clowesia thylaciochila, Mormodes aromatica

Breonadia salicina - Images / Web - Acampe pachyglossa, Ansellia africana, Jumellea walleri, Microcoelia exilis, Mystacidium venosum, Polystachya albescens subsp imbricata, Polystachya mauritiana

Bridelia micrantha - Images / Web - Polystachya albescens subsp imbricata

Bursera simaruba - Images / Web - Psychilis monensis

Cabralea canjerana - Images / Web - Miltonia flavescens

Callicoma serratifolia - Images / Web - Dockrillia schoenina

Calophyllum brasiliense - Images / Web - Rodriguesia decora, Ionopsis utricularioides

Casearia guianensis (Guyanese Wild Coffee) - Images / Web - Tolumnia variegata

Castanopsis indica - Images / Web - Aerides odoratum, Bulbophyllum affine, Bulbophyllum umbellatum, Bulbophyllum viridiflorum, Coelogyne cristata, Dendrobium aphyllum, Gastochilus acutifolius, Oberonia obcordata, Phalaenopsis taenialis, Vandopsis undulata

Castanopsis tribuloides - Images / Web - Pholidota imbricata

Casuarina cunninghamiana - Images / Web - Dockrillia cucumerinum, Dockrillia linguiforme, Dockrillia teretifolia

Casuarina glauca - Images / Web - Dockrillia linguiforme, Dockrillia schoenina, Dockrillia teretifolia

Casuarina torulosa - Images / Web - Dendrobium discolor

Ceiba speciosa - Images / Web - 17 orchid species

Celtis laevigata - Images / Web - Excellent phorophyte see Passages:190

Ceratiola ericoides (rosemary) - Images / Web - Tetramicra canaliculata, Tolumnia bahamensis

Ceratopetalum apetalum (Coachwood) - Images / Web - Dendrobium aemulum

Cinnamomum tamala - Images / Web - Eria spicata

Citrus - Images / Web - Mystacidium braybonae - "Citrus orchards are suitable for many orchids."

Citrus × sinensis (orange) - Images / Web - Campylocentrum micranthum, Dendrophylax porrectus, Ionopsis utricularioides, Nidema boothii, Notylia barkeri, Dimerandra emarginata, Leochilus labiatus, Trichocentrum ascendens, Trichocentrum luridum

Citrus aurantium - Images / Web - Tolumnia variegata

Cleistocalyx operculatus - Images / Web - Aerides multiflora

Clethra hondurensis - Images / Web - Lepanthopsis floripecten

Coccoloba diversifolia (pigeonplum) - Images / Web - Tolumnia variegata

Coccoloba manzanillensis - Images / Web - Cattleya skinneri, Encyclia cordigera

Coccoloba microstachya - Images / Web - Psychilis monensis

Coffea arabica - Images / Web - "The coffee trees themselves can actually be good orchid hosts;"

Colebrookea oppositifolia (Indian Squirrel Tail) - Images / Web - Eria graminifolia

Combretum imberbe - Images / Web - Ansellia africana

Comocladia dodonaea (poison ash) - Images / Web - Psychilis monensis

Conocarpus erectus (buttonwood) - Images / Web - Encyclia boothiana

Corymbia gummifera (bloodwood) - Images / Web - Dendrobium smillieae

Crescentia alata (calabash) - Images / Web - Laelia rubescens, Barkeria barkeriola, B. naevosa, B. palmeri, B. uniflora, Dendrophylax aff porrectum, Erycina echinata, Trichocentrum cebolleta - "Epiphytes grow profusely on jicaro trees because their corky bark and open crown make them good hosts…", "especially favorable for orchids"

Crescentia cujete (calabash) - Images / Web - Tolumnia variegata - "justly famous as an orchid tree", "especially favorable for orchids"

Cryosophila nana - Images / Web - Catasetum laminatum, Encyclia rzedowskiana, Galeandra greenwoodiana

Cussonia spicata - Images / Web / Link - Bulbophyllum sandersonii, Polystachya ottoniana

Cycas armstrongii - Images / Web - Dendrobium affine

Dacryodes excelsa - Images / Web - Maxillaria coccinea - "the two most important orchid hosts in our study site"

Dalbergia armata - Images / Web - Aerangis somalensis

Dalbergia sissoo - Images / Web - Eria extinctoria, Pholidota articulata, Vanda tessellata, Vanda testacea

Daphniphyllum himalense - Images / Web - Cymbidium longifolium, Panisea demissa

Dillenia alata - Images / Web - Dendrobium johannis

Dillenia indica (Elephant apple) - Images / Web - Gastochilus dasyopogon

Diospyros mespiliformis - Images / Web - Microcoelia exilis

Diospyros whyteana - Images / Web - Mystacidium capense - "increasingly cultivated in Southern African gardens as an attractive and strong ornamental tree"

Dipterocarpus tuberculatus - Images / Web - Dendrobium scabrilingue

Duabanga grandiflora - Images / Web - Flickineria fugax

Dypsis fibrosa - Images / Web - Cymbidiella falcigera

Dypsis utilis - Images / Web - Eulophiella elisabethae

Dysoxylum mollissimum subsp. Molle - Images / Web - Dendrobium schneiderae

Echinopsis terscheckii - Images / Web - Oncidium bifolium

Ehretia acuminata - Images / Web - Dockrillia schoenina

Ekebergia pterophylla - Images / Web - Mystacidium gracile

Elaeis guineensis (African oil palm) - Images / Web - Paralophia epiphytica - "The orchid grows near the base of the trunks of the palms, running through their leaf bases with the leaves and stems of the orchid hanging in a curtain all around the palm trunk."

Elaeocarpus grandiflorus - Images / Web - "an exceptionally good orchid host"

Engelhardia roxburghiana - Images / Web - Bulbophyllum japonicum

Engelhardia spicata - Images / Web - Bulbophyllum polyrhizum, Bulbophyllum sterile, Bulbophyllum triste, Dendrobium aphyllum, Liparis resupinata, Oberonia acaulis, Smitinandia micrantha, Trudelia alpina, Vanda tricolor

Englerophytum magalismontanum - Images / Web - Angraecum stella-africae, Bulbophyllum elliottii, Cyrtorchis praetermissa, Mystacidium braybonae, Mystacidium venosum, Polystachya mauritiana, Polystachya sandersonii

Enterolobium cyclocarpum - Images / Web - Guarianthe aurantiaca, Brassavola cucullata

Erithalis fruticosa - Images / Web - Psychilis monensis

Erythrina speciosa - Images / Web - 23 orchid species

Erythroxylum brevipes - Images / Web - Tolumnia variegata

Eucalyptus paniculata - Images / Web - Dendrobium aemulum

Eucalyptus sideroxylon (Mugga, Red Ironbark) - Images / Web - Dendrobium aemulum

Eucalyptus tessellaris - Images / Web - Dendrobium discolor

Eugenia biflora - Images / Web - Tolumnia variegata

Eugenia formosa - Images / Web - Aerides multiflora, Panisea uniflora, Papilionanthe teres

Eugenia monticola (birdcherry) - Images / Web - Tolumnia variegata

Euphorbia lactea - Images / Web - Tolumnia variegata

Eurya acuminata - Images / Web - Oberonia caulescens, Otochilus fuscus, Panisea demissa, Trudelia cristata

Euterpe edulis - Images / Web - MVP

Ficus benghalensis - Images / Web - Aerides multiflora

Ficus nemoralis - Images / Web - Gastochilus calceolaris

Ficus neriifolia - Images / Web - Trudelia cristata

Ficus religiosa - Images / Web - Aerides multiflora, Rhynchostylis retusa

Fouquieria macdougalii - Images / Web - Oncidium cebolleta

Fraxinus caroliniana (pop-ash) - Images / Web - Campylocentrum pachyrrhizum, Dendrophylax lindenii, Encyclia pygmaea, Harrisella porrecta, Pleurothallis gelida, Restrepiella ophiocephala

Fraxinus uhdei (evergreen ash (fresno)) - Images / Web - "Ahuehuetes, ahuejotes and fresnos are good hosts for epiphytic orchids"

Ginkgo biloba (Maidenhair tree) - Images / Web / Link - Neofinetia falcata

Gomidesia schaueriana - Images / Web - largest number of epiphytes

Guarea guidonia - Images / Web - Maxillaria coccinea - "the two most important orchid hosts in our study site"

Guazuma ulmifolia - Images / Web - Oncidium cebolleta

Gymnanthes lucida (Crabwood, Oysterwood) - Images / Web - Tolumnia variegata

Gymnopodium floribundum - Images / Web - Cohniella yucatanensis, Laelia rubescens, Encyclia nematocaulon

Haematoxylon brasiletto - Images / Web - Barkeria shoemakeri

Halleria lucida - Images / Web - Mystacidium flanaganii

Heritiera utilis - Images / Web - "abundance of epiphytes"

Hevea brasiliensis - Images / Web - Trichocentrum oerstedii

Holocalyx balansae - Images / Web - Miltonia flavescens

Ilex excelsa - Images / Web - Dendrobium nobile

Inga edulis - Images / Web - Rodriguesia decora, Ionopsis utricularioides

Inga marginata - Images / Web - 20 orchid species

Inga vera - Images / Web - 21 orchid species

Jacaranda mimosifolia - Images / Web - Ansellia africana

Juniperus virginiana - Images / Web - Excellent phorophyte see Passages:190

Krugiodendron ferreum (black ironwood, leadwood) - Images / Web - Tolumnia variegata

Leucosidea sericea - Images / Web - Mystacidium capense

Licania arborea - Images / Web - Brassavola cucullata, Guarianthe aurantiaca, Laelia rubescens

Lithocarpus sundaicus - Images / Web - Vanda tricolor

Lonchocarpus leucanthus - Images / Web - Miltonia flavescens

Lophira alata - Images / Web - "abundance of epiphytes"

Lophostemon confertus - Images / Web - Dendrobium aemulum

Lophostemon grandiflorus - Images / Web - Dendrobium discolor

Lophostemon suaveolens - Images / Web - Dendrobium johannis

Lyonia ovalifolia - Images / Web - Agrostophyllum callosum, Bulbophyllum retusiusculum, Coelogyne corymbosa, Dendrobium bicameratum, Esmeralda cathcartii, Liparis viridiflora, Otochilus fuscus, Panisea demissa, Sunipia scariosa

Machilus gamblei - Images / Web - Dendrobium densiflorum

Machilus zuihoensis - Images / Web - Bulbophyllum japonicum

Madhuca latifolia - Images / Web - Aerides multiflora, Eria lasiopetala, Vanda tessellata, Vanda testacea

Maesa chisia - Images / Web - Eria excavata

Magnolia ovata - Images / Web - numerous species

Mahonia napaulensis - Images / Web - Pholidota articulata

Mallotus philippensis (Red Kamala) - Images / Web - Oberonia ensiformis, Oberonia pachyrachis, Ornithochilus difformis, Rhynchostylis retusa

Mammea suriga - Images / Web - Acampe praemosa, Bulbophyllum neilgherrence, Cleisostoma tenuifolium, Dendrobium ovatum, Rhynchostylis retusa, Vanda testacea

Mangifera indica (Mango) - Images / Web - Acampe praemosa, Aerides multiflora, Bulbophyllum neilgherrence, Bulbophyllum sterile, Cleisostoma tenuifolium, Dendrobium ovatum, Dendrophylax funalis, Eria bractescens, Rhynchostylis retusa, Trudelia cristata, Vanda testacea, Vandopsis undulata

Maytenus acuminata - Images / Web - Mystacidium venosum

Melaleuca argentea - Images / Web - Dendrobium canaliculatum

Melaleuca clarksonii - Images / Web - Dendrobium trilamellatum

Melaleuca dealbata - Images / Web - Dendrobium canaliculatum

Melaleuca leucadendra - Images / Web - Myrmecodia beccarii, Dendrobium canaliculatum

Melaleuca nervosa - Images / Web - Dendrobium affine

Melaleuca stenostachya - Images / Web - Dendrobium trilamellatum

Melaleuca symphyocarpa - Images / Web - Dendrobium canaliculatum

Melaleuca viridiflora - Images / Web - Dendrobium canaliculatum, Dendrobium carronii

Melanorrhoea usitata - Images / Web - Dendrobium scabrilingue

Meliosma squamulata - Images / Web - Bulbophyllum japonicum

Metrodorea stipularis - Images / Web - numerous species

Mitragyna parviflora - Images / Web - Acampe rigida, Aerides odoratum, Papilionanthe teres

Myrcia glabra - Images / Web - 21 orchid species

Nauclea orientalis - Images / Web - Dendrobium nindii

Nectandra megapotamica - Images / Web - Miltonia flavescens

Neea buxifolia - Images / Web - Tolumnia variegata

Notelaea venosa - Images / Web - Sarcochilus hillii, Plectorrhiza tridentata, Sarcochilus parviflorus

Nothofagus moorei - Images / Web - Dendrobium falcorostrum

Nuxia floribunda - Images / Web - Angraecum chamaeanthus

Nyssa biflora (water gum) - Images / Web - Epidendrum conopseum

Pachycereus pecten-aboriginum - Images / Web - Trichocentrum cebolleta, Encyclia adenocarpa

Pandanus utilis (common screwpine) - Images / Web - Eulophiella roempleriana

Parinari curatellifolia - Images / Web - Cyrtorchis praetermissa

Parinari excelsa - Images / Web - "abundance of epiphytes" 8 species of orchids

Parkia biglobosa - Images / Web / Link - Bulbophyllum in dryish African habitats

Patagonula americana - Images / Web - Miltonia flavescens

Paurotis wrightii - Images / Web - Encyclia tampensis

Peltophorum africanum - Images / Web - Ansellia africana

Peseskia autumnalis (manzanote) - Images / Web - Oncidium cebolleta

Phyllanthus epiphyllanthus - Images / Web - Psychilis monensis

Pilosocereus royenii - Images / Web - Psychilis monensis

Pinus ayacahuite - Images / Web - several orchids

Pinus maximinoi - Images / Web - Epidendrum mixtum, Prostecha rhynchophora, Scaphyglottis confusa

Pinus oocarpa - Images / Web - Hormidium rhynchiphorum

Pinus roxburghii - Images / Web - Eria alba, Thrixspermum pygmaeum

Piptadeniastrum africanum - Images / Web - 7 species of orchids

Pisonia macranthocarpa - Images / Web - Rhyncholaelia digbyana

Pithecellobium dulce - Images / Web - Laelia anceps subs. dawsonii f. chilapensis

Platymiscium floribundum - Images / Web - numerous species

Plumeria obtusa - Images / Web - Psychilis monensis

Podocarpus latifolius - Images / Web - Angraecum chamaeanthus, Angraecum conchiferum, Angraecum sacciferum, Bulbophyllum sandersonii, Mystacidium flanaganii, Mystacidium gracile, Mystacidium venosum, Polystachya fusiformis, Polystachya ngomensis, Polystachya transvaalensis, Tridactyle bicaudata

Poitea florida - Images / Web - Tolumnia variegata

Pongamia pinnata - Images / Web - Acampe praemosa, Bulbophyllum neilgherrence, Cleisostoma tenuifolium, Dendrobium ovatum, Rhynchostylis retusa, Vanda testacea.

Prunus cerasoides (Himalayan cherry) - Images / Web - Trudelia alpina, Trudelia cristata

Pyrus pashia - Images / Web - Bulbophyllum cylindraceum, Chiloschista parishii, Panisea demissa, Trudelia alpina

Quercus amissaeloba - Images / Web - Lepanthopsis floripecten

Quercus castanea - Images / Web - Laelia furfuracea - "have many orchids"

Quercus chihuahuensis - Images / Web - Oncidium cebolleta

Quercus crassifolia - Images / Web - "greatest abundance of epiphytes"

Quercus deserticola - Images / Web - Laelia speciosa, Prosthechea aff. Karwinskii

Quercus elliptica - Images / Web - Hagsatera brachycolumna

Quercus germana - Images / Web - Isochilus unilateralis - highest number of epiphytes…

Quercus glauca - Images / Web - Agrostophyllum callosum, Bulbophyllum careyanum, Bulbophyllum secundum, Bulbophyllum umbellatum, Chiloschista usneoides, Coelogyne cristata, Dendrobium bicameratum, Dendrobium candidum, Dendrobium eriiflorum, Dendrobium heterocarpum, Dendrobium longicornu, Eria apertiflora, Eria bipuncata, Eria coronaria, Eria spicata, Gastochilus calceolaris, Panisea demissa, Pholidota articulata, Rhynchostylis retusa, Trudelia cristata

Quercus griffithii - Images / Web - Ceratostylis himalaica, Eria alba

Quercus laeta - Images / Web - Laelia speciosa

Quercus lanata - Images / Web - Bulbophyllum careyanum

Quercus lanuginosa - Images / Web - Bulbophyllum hirtum, Rhynchostylis retusa, Thunia alba, Trudelia alpina

Quercus liebmannii - Images / Web - Laelia furfuracea

Quercus semecarpifolia - Images / Web - Bulbophyllum odoratissimum, Bulbophyllum reptans, Bulbophyllum retusiusculum, Bulbophyllum rigidum, Coelogyne corymbosa, Epigenium fuscescens, Eria apertiflora, Eria excavata, Eria graminifolia, Ione bicolor

Quercus urbanii - Images / Web - Laelia furfuracea

Quercus vicentensis - Images / Web - "have many orchids"

Quercus virginiana - Images / Web - Epidendrum magnoliae - Excellent phorophyte see Passages:190

Rapanea juergensenii - Images / Web - "greatest abundance of epiphytes"

Raphia farinifera (Madagascar raphia palm) - Images / Web - Cymbidiella falcigera, Paralophia epiphytica - "The orchid grows near the base of the trunks of the palms, running through their leaf bases with the leaves and stems of the orchid hanging in a curtain all around the palm trunk."

Ravenea xerophila (Anivona Palm) - Images / Web / Link - Paralophia palmicola

Ravenia xerophila - Images / Web - Paralophia palmicola

Reynosia uncinata - Images / Web - Psychilis monensis

Rhododendron arboreum - Images / Web - Bulbophyllum affine, Bulbophyllum reptans, Bulbophyllum retusiusculum, Dendrobium longicornu, Epigenium rotundatum, Otochilus albus, Rhynchostylis retusa, Sunipia scariosa

Rhododendron barbatum - Images / Web - Diphylax urceolata

Richeria grandis - Images / Web - numerous species, reputed to have aphrodisiac properties

Roystonea elata (royal palm) - Images / Web - Campylocentrum pachyrrhizum, Epidendrum anceps, Epidendrum nocturnum

Sabal mexicana - Images / Web - Catasetum integerrimum

Sabal pumos - Images / Web - Clowesia glaucoglossa

Sabal rosei - Images / Web - Galeandra greenwoodiana

Salix bonplandiana (willow (ahuejote)) - Images / Web - "Ahuehuetes, ahuejotes and fresnos are good hosts for epiphytic orchids"

Sapindus saponaria - Images / Web - Oncidium cebolleta

Sapium insigne - Images / Web - Aerides odoratum, Bulbophyllum affine, Dendrobium aphyllum, Oberonia falconeri, Smitinandia micrantha

Sarcocephalus coadunatus (Leichardt) - Images / Web - Dendrobium smillieae

Schaefferia frutescens (Florida boxwood) - Images / Web - Tolumnia variegata

Schima wallichii - Images / Web - Acampe rigida, Aerides multiflora, Aerides odoratum, Agrostophyllum callosum, Bulbophyllum affine, Bulbophyllum careyanum, Bulbophyllum elatum, Bulbophyllum guttulatum, Bulbophyllum hirtum, Bulbophyllum odoratissimum, Bulbophyllum sterile, Bulbophyllum viridiflorum, Bulbophyllum wallichii, Cleisostoma filiforme, Coelogyne cristata, Coelogyne flaccida, Coelogyne fuliginosa, Coelogyne fuscescens, Coelogyne nitida, Coelogyne ovalis, Coelogyne prolifera, Coelogyne stricta, Cymbidium hookerianum, Cymbidium iridioides, Dendrobium anceps, Dendrobium aphyllum, Dendrobium densiflorum, Dendrobium denudans, Dendrobium eriiflorum, Dendrobium eriiflorum, Dendrobium fimbriatum, Dendrobium formosum, Dendrobium heterocarpum, Dendrobium hookerianum, Dendrobium moschatum, Dendrobium nobile, Epigenium amplum, Eria acervata, Eria amica, Eria coronaria, Eria discolor, Eria lasiopetala, Eria muscicola, Eria paniculata, Eria spicata, Eria stricta, Flickineria fugax, Liparis viridiflora, Luisia zeylanica, Monomeria barbata, Oberonia acaulis, Oberonia caulescens, Oberonia ensiformis, Oberonia mucronata, Oberonia pachyrachis, Ornithochilus difformis, Panisea uniflora, Phalaenopsis mannii, Pholidota articulata, Pholidota imbricata, Podochilus cultratus, Porpax elwesii, Rhynchostylis retusa, Smitinandia micrantha, Thunia alba, Trudelia cristata, Vanda coerulea, Vandopsis undulata

Senegalia catechu - Images / Web - Trudelia cristata

Shorea obtusa - Images / Web - Dendrobium scabrilingue

Shorea robusta - Images / Web - Acampe papillosa, Aerides odoratum, Ascocentrum ampullaceum, Bulbophyllum roxburghii, Dendrobium chrysanthum, Dendrobium denudans, Dendrobium fimbriatum, Dendrobium formosum, Dendrobium moschatum, Dendrobium peguanum, Dendrobium transparens, Eria discolor, Eria excavata, Eria extinctoria, Eria lasiopetala, Gastrochilus obliquus, Oberonia mucronata, Panisea uniflora, Papilionanthe teres, Phalaenopsis mannii, Pholidota articulata, Pteroceras teres, Trichotosia dasyphylla, Trudelia cristata,

Spirostachys africana - Images / Web - Ansellia africana

Spondias purpurea - Images / Web - Catasetum oerstedii, Cycnoches warscewiczii

Syzygium cordatum - Images / Web - Aerangis distincta, Mystacidium flanaganii, Mystacidium venosum, Polystachya albescens subsp imbricata, Polystachya ngomensis

Tabebuia heterophylla - Images / Web - Psychilis monensis

Talauma ovata - Images / Web - Rodriguesia decora, Ionopsis utricularioides

Tamarindus indica - Images / Web - Angraecum praestans

Tarchonanthus camphoratus - Images / Web - Polystachya ngomensis, Polystachya sandersonii

Taxodium distichum (cypress) - Images / Web - Cyrtopodium punctatum, Encyclia tampensis - Excellent phorophyte see Benzig's Bromeliaceae

Taxodium mucronatum (Montezuma cypress (ahuehuete) - Images / Web - Oncidium cebolleta - "Ahuehuetes, ahuejotes and fresnos are good hosts for epiphytic orchids"

Tectona grandis (Teak) - Images / Web - Dendrobium capra

Terminalia chebula - Images / Web - Acampe papillosa

Ternstroemia lineata - Images / Web - "greatest abundance of epiphytes"

Theobroma cacao - Images / Web - Trichocentrum ascendens

Trichospermum mexicanum - Images / Web - Erycina pusilla

Tristania conferta (brush box) - Images / Web - Dendrobium aemulum

Tristania rufescens - Images / Web - Dendrobium scabrilingue

Tristania suaveolens (swamp mahogany) - Images / Web - Dendrobium smillieae

Tristaniopsis laurina (Water Gum, Kanooka, swamp mahogany) - Images / Web - Dendrobium tetragonum

Tsuga dumosa (Himalayan Hemlock) - Images / Web - Gastochilus affinis

Uapaca kirkiana - Images / Web - Cyrtorchis crassifolia

Uniola virgata - Images / Web - Tetramicra ekmanii

Vellozia compacta - Images / Web - Constancia cipoencis

Vellozia piresiana - Images / Web - Constancia cipoencis, Epidendrum saxatile, Prosthechea vespa, Sophronitis brevipedunculata

Vitex mollis - Images / Web - Barkeria uniflora, Oncidium cebolleta

Wormia alata - Images / Web - Dendrobium nindii

Xerophyta retinervis - Images / Web - Polystachya zuluensis

Xerophyta splendens - Images / Web - Polystachya johnstonii, Polystachya zambesiaca

Ziziphus incurva - Images / Web - Cleisostoma racemiferum, Panisea uniflora

Ziziphus taylorii - Images / Web - Psychilis monensis

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